Agriculture

Being the third-largest country in sub-Saharan Africa, Angola spread across a vast area of 1,246,700 sq.km. pose an immense potential for agriculture/ irrigation with a total arable land of 55,900 sq.km. i.e., 44.75% of the totalarea. Angola is the 16th largest country in the world in terms of agri- potential and with around 28 million inhabitants, it is the 7th largest country in terms of population in Africa. Distinctively,the Republic of Angola is enriched with anabundant natural resource, favourable agro-climatic and geographic conditions for enhanced agricultural production. The varied and rich ecological wealth of Angola with impeccable resource base paves way for Angola to emerge as one of the leading agricultural countries in Africa capable of hosting a gamut of crops.

Over the past decades, Republic of Angola has shown evident growth in the agriculture sector. Agriculture sector along with livestock and forestry has contributed about 12% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) exhibiting a promising and sustainable growth soon.

The government is actively engaged in focussing on the revival of the agriculture sector through various policy measures and ease of business option for investors. The main emphasis is laid down on economic diversification and food security through sustainable practices.

The country’s large population with a rising population at a rate of 2.8% ensures the local workforce and employment generation.

In the early 1970s, Angola was the largest producer of one of the most neutral and best quality Robusta coffees in the world. However, upon Independence in 1975, the coffee sector had to witness a decline over the years. Nonetheless, the Government is all set to revive and rehabilitate the coffee sector and to make a dynamic shift through increased production and quality, accelerating market demands, especially for the export markets. The revitalisation of Coffee plantations would uplift the socio-economic status of the locals through employment creation especially for the youth population.

Following are the prominent features favouring growth in agriculture;

  • Abundant inland water resources running through the country perennially offering over 148.4 billion cubic meters with 5 main river systems, comprising 47 river basins.
  • Existence of fertile soils, the Ferrasols which possess favourable physical properties for the cultivation of all major crops
  • Tropical climate with temperatures ranging from 20°C – 28°C with a rainfall season for an average of 2 months/year. The climate is favourable for a variety of tropical and semi-tropical cultures as well, and extensive grazing. The agricultural sector has proven capabilities in the colonial past for a variety of crops such as sugar, cotton, rubber, coffee, corn, peanuts, potatoes, cassava, beans, fruit and horticulture.
  • Immense and varied biodiversity
  • More than 46% of the country’s workforce contribute towards agriculture with a whopping 70% contribution by women aloneas agricultural labour. The high rate of growth in population ensures local employment opportunities.
  • Five major ecological zones corresponding to five major production systems

Cassava

Cassava

Ground Nuts

Groundnut

Sweet Potato

Sweet potato

Angolan Family Agriculture – Major Agricultural Regions

Major Crops Cultivated in Angola are Listed Below Rank Wise;

Rank Name of the Crop Rank Name of the Crop
1. Maize 18. Fruits, citrus
2. Cassava 19. Oil palm fruit
3. Beans, dry 20. Sunflower seed
4. Groundnuts, with shell 21. Castor oil seed
5. Sorghum 22. Sugar cane
6. Millet 23. Sesame seed
7. Fruit primary 24. Onions, shallots, green
8. Sweet potatoes 25. Fruit, fresh
9. Vegetables, primary 26. Tomatoes
10. Potatoes 27. Wheat
11. Bananas 28. Cocoa, beans
12. Cabbages and other brassicas 29. Seed cotton
13. Pineapples 30. Cashew nuts, with shell
14. Vegetables, 31. Tobacco, unmanufactured
15. Rice, paddy 32. Bast fibres, other
16. Coffee, green 33. Sisal
17. Soybeans

Types of Major Crops Listed Province-Wise

S.No. Name of the Province Crop type Total area (ha) harvested in 2017/2018
1. Huambo Maize, beans, reindeer potatoes and vegetables 977,730
2. Kwanza Sul Corn, beans, potato-reindeer pineapple horticulture 704,975
3. Bie Corn, beans, rice, reindeer potato 678,667
4. Huila Corn, reindeer potatoes and vegetables 640,107
5. Benguela Maize, massango, massambala, banana, beans and horticulture crops 507,261
6. Uige Wood, Coffee, Manioc and Banana 318,471
7. Malanje Maize, beans, soy, cassava, sweet potato and sugar 251,490
8. Moxico Rice 212,130
9. Bengo Wood, Coffee, Cassava, Banana and Maize 129,829
10. Kwanza Norte Cassava, coffee and palm 122,045
11. Cunene Massamgo, sorghum and corn 117,337
12. Lunda Norte Cassava, rice 113,953
13. Lunda Sul Cassava, rice and pineapple 106,484
14. CuandoCubango Rice 958,564
15. Namibe Horticultural crops 60,753
16. Cabinda Wood, Coffee, Cocoa and Palm 58,292
17. Zaire Cassava and Citrus fruit 58,076
18. Luanda Fruits, Cassava and Maize 17,383

Growth in the agriculture sector

Endowed with bounteous natural resources and advantages, the agriculture sector demonstrates high market demands in both domestic as well as international markets which inturn leads the way forward to increased revenue potential.

Agro clusters for enhanced levels of agribusiness are into development envisaging huge opportunities for rapid growth in Agriculture.

The Government of the Republic of Angola has nominated the Agriculture sector as a Strategic Priority in 2011 and the private investment law defines;

“Agriculture and livestock sectors as one of the priority areas for private investment in Angola”

On realization of the Agricultural potential in Angola, foreign investments have started to pick up;

  • Brazil, Spain, USA, Portugal and Canada are continuing their investments in the Agro-industrial area in Cuanza-Sul developed in 2010
  • Japan financed an infrastructure and irrigation project in Moxico province last year and are continuing their demining cooperation with the Angolan government in Bengo.
  • In 2013, the Portuguese business group Delta Café began to promote the production of Coffee in Uige province.
  • China has announced the first rice harvest in Cuando-Cobango province, and they have also invested in Malanje and Uige for agricultural study and research

Revolution of the Agriculture sector comes with a host of benefits such as:

  • Drive the income growth
  • Accelerate food and nutritional security
  • Generate employment for the locals
  • Reduce the import demand and making local produce available for domestic markets
  • Producing supplies for the export market

Commercial agriculture

Commercial agriculture is an emerging sector in Angola with high potential, opportunity and demand.

Supermarket chains have started developing commercial partnerships with small and medium domestic producers to reduce imports and increase freshness and quality control.

List of Prioritized Commodities Through Analysis

S.No. Crops / Produce Rationale
1. Coffee Excellent bio-physical suitability, traditional export commodity, offers great scope for improving both area production and productivity
There is a potential for weaving a unique story around the revival of the Angolan coffee and the possibility of branding it as an organic product
2. Soybean Important commercial crop, almost entirely available for processing
3. Maize A most important crop in terms of area, production, processing, and holds the potential for value addition and export
4. Cassava The second-largest area under cultivation and has value addition potential
5. Potato Important tuber crop holds great potential for value addition. The area and yield steadily increasing in recent years.
6. Citrus Citrus is listed as an important fruit crop, huge potential for value addition and also suitable for commercial farming
7. Groundnut It has the fourth-largest area under cultivation as per FAO  data and most important crop as terms of area planted and held significant potential for value addition and processing in Angola
8. Sweet potato Sweet potato is also a significant crop in terms of area and production, widely grown across the country, and holds the potential for processing
9. Tomato Important horticultural crop, grown in large areas in Angola. Having great scope improving the area, production, productivity and value addition in a relatively short period

Cassava

Cassava is Angola’s main agricultural export product. Currently, about 67% of the total agricultural exports are coming from Cassava. Angola is in the 7th position in the world in terms of Cassava production.

  • In 2017, the Cassava production was more than 11.7 million tonnes, accounting to a remarkable increase compared to 10.2 million tonnes the previous year
  • Cassava production is being done in an area of more than 1 million hectares
  • There is an established research centre in Malanje for Cassava production
  • Besides, the provinces of Huambo, Bie, Cuanza-Sul, Namibe, Zaire, Luanda and Cabinda will also be equipped with research laboratories along with well-trained technicians.
  • Research centres will focus on increasing Cassava productivity

Banana

Angola stands at 7th position in terms of Banana production in the world and the second-largest producer in Africa.

Next to Cassava, Banana represents the second biggest agricultural export product accounting to 19% of total exports.
Banana is being called “Green Fuel” that would serve as a crunch point in the growth of Angola’s economy.

  • in 2017, Angola produced more than 4.3 million tonnes of bananas, and this proves that there is huge potential for bananas in the export market
  • Currently, a high percentage of the produce is being shipped to Portugal
  • NOVAGROLIDER is one of the biggest Banana companies in Angola. It reached a production of 71,000 tonnes in 2017 in the Bengo and Caxito farms; bringing about an increase of 77% in 2 years.

Wheat flour

In the past before the civil war period, Angola has marked the highest levels of wheat production.

At present, the country has instated 3 national mills with an installed capacity of 700,000 tonnes/ annum.

It is estimated that Angola could become self-sufficient by 2020 in wheat production and start contributing towards export market demands and foreign exchange revenues.