Being the third-largest country in sub-Saharan Africa, Angola spread across a vast area of 1,246,700 sq.km. pose an immense potential for agriculture/ irrigation with a total arable land of 55,900 sq.km. i.e., 44.75% of the totalarea. Angola is the 16th largest country in the world in terms of agri- potential and with around 28 million inhabitants, it is the 7th largest country in terms of population in Africa. Distinctively,the Republic of Angola is enriched with anabundant natural resource, favourable agro-climatic and geographic conditions for enhanced agricultural production. The varied and rich ecological wealth of Angola with impeccable resource base paves way for Angola to emerge as one of the leading agricultural countries in Africa capable of hosting a gamut of crops.
Over the past decades, Republic of Angola has shown evident growth in the agriculture sector. Agriculture sector along with livestock and forestry has contributed about 12% of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) exhibiting a promising and sustainable growth soon.
The government is actively engaged in focussing on the revival of the agriculture sector through various policy measures and ease of business option for investors. The main emphasis is laid down on economic diversification and food security through sustainable practices.
The country’s large population with a rising population at a rate of 2.8% ensures the local workforce and employment generation.
In the early 1970s, Angola was the largest producer of one of the most neutral and best quality Robusta coffees in the world. However, upon Independence in 1975, the coffee sector had to witness a decline over the years. Nonetheless, the Government is all set to revive and rehabilitate the coffee sector and to make a dynamic shift through increased production and quality, accelerating market demands, especially for the export markets. The revitalisation of Coffee plantations would uplift the socio-economic status of the locals through employment creation especially for the youth population.
Following are the prominent features favouring growth in agriculture;
- Abundant inland water resources running through the country perennially offering over 148.4 billion cubic meters with 5 main river systems, comprising 47 river basins.
- Existence of fertile soils, the Ferrasols which possess favourable physical properties for the cultivation of all major crops
- Tropical climate with temperatures ranging from 20°C – 28°C with a rainfall season for an average of 2 months/year. The climate is favourable for a variety of tropical and semi-tropical cultures as well, and extensive grazing. The agricultural sector has proven capabilities in the colonial past for a variety of crops such as sugar, cotton, rubber, coffee, corn, peanuts, potatoes, cassava, beans, fruit and horticulture.
- Immense and varied biodiversity
- More than 46% of the country’s workforce contribute towards agriculture with a whopping 70% contribution by women aloneas agricultural labour. The high rate of growth in population ensures local employment opportunities.
- Five major ecological zones corresponding to five major production systems
Angolan Family Agriculture – Major Agricultural Regions
Major Crops Cultivated in Angola are Listed Below Rank Wise;
|Rank||Name of the Crop||Rank||Name of the Crop|
|2.||Cassava||19.||Oil palm fruit|
|3.||Beans, dry||20.||Sunflower seed|
|4.||Groundnuts, with shell||21.||Castor oil seed|
|7.||Fruit primary||24.||Onions, shallots, green|
|8.||Sweet potatoes||25.||Fruit, fresh|
|12.||Cabbages and other brassicas||29.||Seed cotton|
|13.||Pineapples||30.||Cashew nuts, with shell|
|15.||Rice, paddy||32.||Bast fibres, other|
Types of Major Crops Listed Province-Wise
|S.No.||Name of the Province||Crop type||Total area (ha) harvested in 2017/2018|
|1.||Huambo||Maize, beans, reindeer potatoes and vegetables||977,730|
|2.||Kwanza Sul||Corn, beans, potato-reindeer pineapple horticulture||704,975|
|3.||Bie||Corn, beans, rice, reindeer potato||678,667|
|4.||Huila||Corn, reindeer potatoes and vegetables||640,107|
|5.||Benguela||Maize, massango, massambala, banana, beans and horticulture crops||507,261|
|6.||Uige||Wood, Coffee, Manioc and Banana||318,471|
|7.||Malanje||Maize, beans, soy, cassava, sweet potato and sugar||251,490|
|9.||Bengo||Wood, Coffee, Cassava, Banana and Maize||129,829|
|10.||Kwanza Norte||Cassava, coffee and palm||122,045|
|11.||Cunene||Massamgo, sorghum and corn||117,337|
|12.||Lunda Norte||Cassava, rice||113,953|
|13.||Lunda Sul||Cassava, rice and pineapple||106,484|
|16.||Cabinda||Wood, Coffee, Cocoa and Palm||58,292|
|17.||Zaire||Cassava and Citrus fruit||58,076|
|18.||Luanda||Fruits, Cassava and Maize||17,383|
Growth in the agriculture sector
Endowed with bounteous natural resources and advantages, the agriculture sector demonstrates high market demands in both domestic as well as international markets which inturn leads the way forward to increased revenue potential.
Agro clusters for enhanced levels of agribusiness are into development envisaging huge opportunities for rapid growth in Agriculture.
The Government of the Republic of Angola has nominated the Agriculture sector as a Strategic Priority in 2011 and the private investment law defines;
“Agriculture and livestock sectors as one of the priority areas for private investment in Angola”
On realization of the Agricultural potential in Angola, foreign investments have started to pick up;
- Brazil, Spain, USA, Portugal and Canada are continuing their investments in the Agro-industrial area in Cuanza-Sul developed in 2010
- Japan financed an infrastructure and irrigation project in Moxico province last year and are continuing their demining cooperation with the Angolan government in Bengo.
- In 2013, the Portuguese business group Delta Café began to promote the production of Coffee in Uige province.
- China has announced the first rice harvest in Cuando-Cobango province, and they have also invested in Malanje and Uige for agricultural study and research
Revolution of the Agriculture sector comes with a host of benefits such as:
- Drive the income growth
- Accelerate food and nutritional security
- Generate employment for the locals
- Reduce the import demand and making local produce available for domestic markets
- Producing supplies for the export market
Commercial agriculture is an emerging sector in Angola with high potential, opportunity and demand.
Supermarket chains have started developing commercial partnerships with small and medium domestic producers to reduce imports and increase freshness and quality control.
List of Prioritized Commodities Through Analysis
|S.No.||Crops / Produce||Rationale|
|1.||Coffee||Excellent bio-physical suitability, traditional export commodity, offers great scope for improving both area production and productivity
There is a potential for weaving a unique story around the revival of the Angolan coffee and the possibility of branding it as an organic product
|2.||Soybean||Important commercial crop, almost entirely available for processing|
|3.||Maize||A most important crop in terms of area, production, processing, and holds the potential for value addition and export|
|4.||Cassava||The second-largest area under cultivation and has value addition potential|
|5.||Potato||Important tuber crop holds great potential for value addition. The area and yield steadily increasing in recent years.|
|6.||Citrus||Citrus is listed as an important fruit crop, huge potential for value addition and also suitable for commercial farming|
|7.||Groundnut||It has the fourth-largest area under cultivation as per FAO data and most important crop as terms of area planted and held significant potential for value addition and processing in Angola|
|8.||Sweet potato||Sweet potato is also a significant crop in terms of area and production, widely grown across the country, and holds the potential for processing|
|9.||Tomato||Important horticultural crop, grown in large areas in Angola. Having great scope improving the area, production, productivity and value addition in a relatively short period|
Cassava is Angola’s main agricultural export product. Currently, about 67% of the total agricultural exports are coming from Cassava. Angola is in the 7th position in the world in terms of Cassava production.
- In 2017, the Cassava production was more than 11.7 million tonnes, accounting to a remarkable increase compared to 10.2 million tonnes the previous year
- Cassava production is being done in an area of more than 1 million hectares
- There is an established research centre in Malanje for Cassava production
- Besides, the provinces of Huambo, Bie, Cuanza-Sul, Namibe, Zaire, Luanda and Cabinda will also be equipped with research laboratories along with well-trained technicians.
- Research centres will focus on increasing Cassava productivity
Angola stands at 7th position in terms of Banana production in the world and the second-largest producer in Africa.
Next to Cassava, Banana represents the second biggest agricultural export product accounting to 19% of total exports.
Banana is being called “Green Fuel” that would serve as a crunch point in the growth of Angola’s economy.
- in 2017, Angola produced more than 4.3 million tonnes of bananas, and this proves that there is huge potential for bananas in the export market
- Currently, a high percentage of the produce is being shipped to Portugal
- NOVAGROLIDER is one of the biggest Banana companies in Angola. It reached a production of 71,000 tonnes in 2017 in the Bengo and Caxito farms; bringing about an increase of 77% in 2 years.
In the past before the civil war period, Angola has marked the highest levels of wheat production.
At present, the country has instated 3 national mills with an installed capacity of 700,000 tonnes/ annum.
It is estimated that Angola could become self-sufficient by 2020 in wheat production and start contributing towards export market demands and foreign exchange revenues.